1944: Drs. J. Rock and M. Menkin reported that between the years 1938 and 1944 they had collected 800 human ova by laparotomy and successfully fertilised 138 eggs in-vitro.

1949: Drs. C. Polge, A. Smith and A. Parkes reported on the protective properties of glycerol when freezing spermatozoa.

1953: Dr. J. Sherman used glycerol to protect sperm during freezing and thawing to fertilise human ova in-vitro. That year he opened the world’s first sperm bank.

1957: The DNA gene COMT, which is associated with extreme violence, was discovered by the biochemist J. Axelrod.

1957: The DNA gene DAT-1 was discovered by Dr. A. Carlsson, subsequent studies suggest there is an association with schizophrenia.

1962: Dr. J. Lederberg, a leading geneticist speculates the use of gene therapy.

1973: Professors C. Wood and J. Leeton reported the world’s first successful IVF pregnancy in a woman.

1978: Professors P. Steptoe and R. Edwards reported the world’s first successful live human IVF birth. That year, Drs. S. Mukherjee, S. Mukherji and S. Bhattacharya reported the world’s first live human IVF birth using a frozen embryo. 

VERIFIABLE EVENTS AND FACTS

The following are verifiable events and facts. These paint the history leading up to the live births of twin boys in 1974, in London. They were created through IVF. Their birth marked two milestones.


  • It was four years before Professors P. Steptoe and R. Edwards reported to the world the live birth of a baby girl arising from IVF


  • It was the successful outcome of decades of reproductive research, which began its gruesome journey in Nazi Germany under the watchful eyes of Professor Clauberg and Dr. Mengele 


The history and the story are recounted in Blood Relationships as are the terrible events that occurred in the heart of London in 2012 and which, resulted in a bloody conclusion in Odessa, Ukraine. 



Was it July 4, 2012 when the killings began? History tells it differently. American scientists carried out hundreds of IVF experiments on animals and women in the 1930s and 1940s onwards. 

Genetics - Author - Philip Oldfield

Life was ignited in the petri dish. In 1974 the past opened its eyes. The genetic envelope had been opened. There was no turning back.

​​​​Author of cross genre psychological thrillers and romantic comedies, all with strong female protagonists


PHILIP OLDFIELD

1869: DNA was first discovered by Dr. F. Miescher.

1883: Liquid nitrogen was first produced by Polish scientists, Z. Wróblewski and K. Olszewski.

1891: Professor W. Heape reported the successful transplantation of embryos from one breed of rabbit to another.

1921: Dr. H. Rohleder published his book, ‘Test Tube Babies: A History of Artificial Impregnation of Human Beings.’

1928: Dr. A. Butenandt’s research resulted in the capability to extract sex hormones from women’s urine for subsequent use in the stimulation of the ovaries and the production of multiple eggs during ovulation.

1934: Dr. G. Pincus reported the first successful in-vitro-fertilisation (IVF) transfer and subsequent live birth of rabbits.

1938: Scientists observed sperm could survive freezing and storage at temperatures as low as - 321F/-196C.

1942: Dr. J. Scott first discovered the DNA genes MOA – A and MOA – B which are associated with aggressive and violent behaviour.


​1938: Scientists observed sperm could survive freezing and storage at temperatures as low as - 321F/-196C.

1942: Dr. J. Scott first discovered the DNA genes MOA – A and MOA – B which are associated with aggressive and violent behaviour.